Climate Modification and Volcanoes

Climate modification is a multi-faceted and complex subject. In this article, we take a look at the relationship between climate modification and volcanoes.

Climate Modification and Volcanoes

The climate modification debate is a nasty one. Parties pick their positions, dig in and refuse to listen to the rants of the other side. Lost in the yelling is the simple fact that climate modification is a natural phenomenon to some extent. For proof, we need merely look at the materials kicked out by volcanoes.

It is an undeniable fact of the earth record that volcanoes have changed the climate during certain periods. Small explosions don’t have much impact, but large explosions send massive amounts of material and gases into the atmosphere. The gases include carbon dioxide, the ultimate bugaboo greenhouse gas. Beyond these gases, however, volcanoes can kick out so much debris and ash that the material in the atmosphere can actually block out the sun or reduce the warming effect.

Mount St. Helens is the most studied and well known recent eruption. Unless you have been meditating in a cave for the last 20 years, you know that the volcano exploded on May 18, 1980. The eruption was powerful enough to flatten everything for 17 miles, immediately turning 10 million trees into so much firewood. The huge volcanic ash cloud stretched halfway across the United States, but barely had an impact on global temperatures.

In contrast, the eruption of the El Chichon volcano in 1982 had a measurable climate impact. El Chichon is located in Mexico and was a much smaller eruption than Mount St. Helens. Still, the average temperature around the globe cooled by one degree. What scientist learned is the climate modification impact of volcanoes is highly dependent on the type of explosion. The materials from Mount St. Helens fell out of the atmosphere quickly, while El Chichon belched enormous amounts of sulfur that remained in the atmosphere for much longer.

One of the problems with climate modification is it occurs over a relatively long period of time. Since we started paying attention to the situation, we have not had a chance to see the impact of a major eruption. The stuff we see on television is really small potatoes compared to historically eruptions of note. For example, Mount St. Helens threw roughly a half a cubic mile of material into the air. In 1815, a volcano in Indonesia belched 24 cubic miles of material into the atmosphere. Obviously, one has to imagine it impacted the climate of the earth.

Is there a relationship between climate modification and volcanoes? Undoubtedly. From what we see, however, the relationship is generally of a short duration and not an explanation for the rising temperatures we are seeing currently.

Rick Chapo is with SolarCompanies.com, a directory of solar energy companies. Visit us to read more articles on solar power and global warming and volcanoes.

The 12 UK Land Investment Guidelines

Following these guidelines will help you proceed wisely with investing in UK land:

1) Is the investment land in a region with high demand for housing?

The property should be in area that is viable and not at risk of future decline. Review statistics and trends about violent crime, school performance, industry loss or retention, and poverty, as these factors are crucial to determining housing demand. Find out what the city’s position is on funding for, and commitment to improving any of the aforementioned housing demand indicators.

2) Has a full sustainability study been carried out on the land investment site?

The land investment site must be evaluated to see what impact land development would have on the environment and natural resources. Any disturbance or potential harm to archeological sites, protected species, or conservation areas should be noted. Inspect the land’s topography for any sloping or flooding potential. Assess the effect that your potential investment might have on the present character of the land and buildings. Consider if a new development would “fit in” with the existing developments’ character?

3) Does the land investment site have road access? Is there an existing transport infrastructure?

Inquire about any plans for modification of roads that may affect the property in question. If there are such plans, are they already funded and scheduled or are they still in the planning stages? Research factors that affect the importance of access, such as the number of people who commute to work as opposed to working locally.

4) Does the area where the investment land lies have sufficient amenities to support residents of a new development?

Evaluate the quality and enrollment capacity of local schools availability of recreational facilities. Consider not only the quantity and variety of shops, but ask about longevity versus or high turnover of those businesses. Look into the ease of accessing both inpatient and outpatient medical care. Ask about immediate or future plans for addition or removal of any of the above amenities.

5) Does the company with whom you are investing have a successful record of accomplishment with UK Land Investments?

Ask for referrals from current and previous clients and actually contact them. Search public records, industry journals, and periodicals to be apprised of the company’s reputation, stability, and expertise with investing in UK Land.

6) Does the company contractually retain a holding in the land investment site?

Investigating matters such as this may seem to be obvious and unnecessary but will save you time and money in the long- run

7) Does the company contractually commit funds to the planning application for the land investment site?

Be sure that commitment of funds to the planning application for your potential investment in UK land is specified in the contract.

Admirable Traits Of Successful Entrepreneurs

You may remember in your business subject class, than an entrepreneur is someone who has a great possession of idea, where he is the venture owner and will be accountable for all the adherent tasks it compromise. Being an entrepreneur is a task one should not easily take but will surely embrace all its advantages. Listed below are the admirable traits of a successful entrepreneurs:

Has Vision – in all types of people, whether you are not entrepreneur, people who always succeed are those who see their selves in future and do something for it.

He who set goals – someone plans ahead of time, someone who set parameter to achieve something he would want for his self.

He who is an opportunist – entrepreneurs were known as opportunist because of their attitude to grab the bacon as it was presented to them.

He who knows the Competition – a good entrepreneur is someone who knows the demand in the market. Biz Mirror a real life business magazine featured the life of Lawrence Robinson who gained five business branches in two years. According to him, knowing the demand of the public will surely be an edge, since he is a pool owner, he found out that aqua rite and pool chlorinator are the demand of the market. So what he did was to look for a high end aqua rite and pool chlorinator that he can offer to the public, after a year, his store in Los Angeles, became one of the most sought after pool store in California. He was able to put five branches in two years time and he was so thankful with the idea that he was able to achieve this success because of his aqua rite and pool chlorinator idea.

He who has love and passion for his business – it can be notice that all the successful people are those who love and untiringly work for their work, if you would want to be an entrepreneur, then you must always fall in love and work the best for your business.

Do You Have What It Takes To Become An Online Entrepreneur

What does it take to become an online entrepreneur you ask? It is not always easy. It takes a serious, burning desire to become an entrepreneur.

I am not kidding either. You need to want this more than anything else. (There are a couple of exceptions to this, but not very many.) >

You need to be willing to focus on the end result, which should be, becoming an online entrepreneur. Will you do whatever needs to be done to accomplish your immediate goal?

To become an internet entrepreneur you must have the ability to ignore all the outside negative words and influences of family and so called friends which are said, not meaning to hurt you, but to in their eyes, keep you from making a fool of yourself or them.

Realize also that most likely, you will have some failures and that these failures will only help you learn.

Becoming an Online entrepreneur also requires the ability to accept that you will probably will be doing the same thing over and over again. After all, that is basically what you will be doing, having financial success doing a certain technique, then repeating it.

Let’s not forget organization and the ability to manage your time. If you are organized, you are more likely to know where everything is, which will in turn, give you more time to work. Time management most likely means that you will have written out a schedule as to when to do everything required for a internet entrepreneur thus saving you even more time.

Becoming an online entrepreneur may sound difficult, but the reward for your stick to it attitude will be more then you could ever imagine. I am very excited to offer you the ability to join me, so read my resource box because it will be worth it.

My name is Samantha Livingston and I am an active member of the millionaire society. Come and join me on my journey to becoming a millionaire online. Just follow me to see how, I guarantee you’ll will be amazed at www.whatismillionairesociety.com

Subway Franchise Review – One Footlong At A Time

The first Subway franchise was born in 1974 even though founder Fred DeLuca opened his first store 9 years earlier. Today there are currently over 29,000 Subway franchises spanning the globe in over 85 countries. Entrepreneur magazine has ranked Subway the number one franchise 13 out of the last 17 years, so its a rock-solid franchise.

Even with its amazing popularity and tremendous track record, the real question is deciding whether or not owning a Subway franchise is the right choice for you and your family. There’s a ton of things you should consider when making this big of a choice, so let’s identify what the positives and negatives are.

First of all, the total cost of entry and the total investment to get started ranges anywhere from $101,000 to $285,000. The reason for the big discrepancy depends on whether you’re buying an existing franchise or you’re having to build one or start one from the ground up. Other costs may include remodeling, leasing equipment, inventory, etc. Typically, the down payment that’s required must come from your personal liquid assets and can NOT be borrowed or come from a loan. That fact right there might eliminate some potential franchise owners.

Every Subway franchise pays a royalty fee to the company, specifically 8% of their overall gross sales. This is very important to understand because losing 8% right off the top before you pay for any rent, equipment, inventory, marketing, employees, etc can make a difference in whether or not you’re profitable. On the other hand, in exchange for the royalties the franchisee’s are rewarded with a strong brand recognition and national advertising campaigns.

As far as sales are concerned, 2800 sandwiches and salads are sold every 60 seconds. This provides a pretty constant flow of customers and expected sales. Potential franchise owners feel comfortable with this knowing that their stores most likely will not be empty. Besides, people have to eat somewhere, right?

On the flip side, you are at the mercy of your store location when owning a Subway franchise. No matter if you are open 24 hours, a location can only serve so many customers and can only make so much money. Obviously the product can not be sold online or in other areas, so actually getting traffic to the store is the only way to make sales. In this regard, the Subway franchise is NOT scalable. An entrepreneur would probably have to own multiple locations to really generate the kind of income they would be looking for in owning a franchise.

Furthermore, to buy a franchise, you must have good credit, have considerable net worth and you have to be approved by the company. Once again, this could potentially eliminate more prospective franchise buyers. In the end, owning a Subway franchise is a solid way to have a great chance of success but keep in mind that to really make it big, you’ll probably have to own about 10 or more.

Prerequisites Of Taking Up A Preschool Franchise

Preschools in India are a massive growth sector, full of opportunity, for you and for the wider community. Eurokids India is the number one franchise opportunity in preschools in India and was ranked number four in the annual India Franchise Ranking 2010, so if you want to start a franchise, you want to start a Eurokids franchise.

Obviously, with such a prestigious reputation, and with the crucial care and developmental role of our countrys next generation as our primary focus, our prerequisites for granting a preschool franchise are extremely high. We cannot let the quality slip, for our good name, but especially for the children. Only the best will do, as you can understand.

The most important prerequisite for getting a franchise for a Eurokids India preschool is you need to have a total commitment to help carry forward our ambition of making learning a fun experience for kids. You have to have a passion for early child education and a love of children. There is no point in getting into this industry if you do not have a pastoral love for children and desire to fulfil their education needs.

To start with, you will need to own or rent a space of at least 1500 square feet in a quiet, tranquil and peaceful location. It must be on the ground floor and have an open area adjacent that can be used as an outdoor play area. It must also have independent access, attached toilet facilities and needs to be well ventilated.

You must have between INR 5 10 Lakh minimum, which should be spent on ambience and equipment cost need to start. This will depend on the location of the preschool and the alterations needed to fit it out.

Once you have been accepted as a franchise holder you will undergo an extensive training program that will teach you how to successfully operate a preschool. You and your staff members will also receive ongoing training for the Eurokids curriculum and delivery method.

If you have all this then dont hesitate to give Eurokids India a call today. Together we can educate the next generation.

Choosing A Good Business Finance Company

Nowadays, even more than ever, businesses across the country are still wanting to grow and expand. Perhaps taking on new and different markets, opening new offices or even just refurbishing their current offices. Perhaps many of these businesses will not have the cashflow available to grow and expand. They will then need to look around for companies who specialise in organising business finance. So what should these companies keep in mind when looking around for suitable companies that offer business finance?
In the UK there are a huge amount of various companies and institutions advertising their business finance services. See for yourself and type in the search phrase business finance or business financing into any search engine and the list of results you get back will astound you. It really is overwhelming with the amount of companies available. So how do you pick the right company for you? Here is some advice which may just help you narrow down your list of business finance companies.
First of all it is essential that a business finance advisor takes time to listen to your requirements. Once they have pinpointed your specific requirements they should then be able to highlight the best possible business financing options available to you. Having good communication channels between you and the business finance company really is really important to make sure you get the best possible finance solution. Therefore you really should try to find a company that you feel comfortable talking to and who are easily contactable.
It is also a good idea to make sure you check business finance companies to ensure that they have the expertise you require. Do not be afraid to ask whether individual companies have assisted others gain business financing for the purpose you require. Of course the more reputable business finance companies will be more than willing to provide you with information on how they have assisted other businesses. The websites for individual companies are a great way to first of all assess whether a company is experienced, or not.
Remember, as with most products and services it is always essential to shop around. Do not automatically assume you are getting the best deal with the first business finance company that you make contact with. Do not be afraid to get several business financing quotes from several business finance companies. As pointed out above, the market is full of companies wanting to help you, so competition is fierce. Taking time to shop around for business financing could really pay off and you really could save yourself a lot of money.
If this all sounds interesting and you would like to make contact with a reputable business finance company then why not pay a visit to Bell Finance. With Bell Finance you can be sure of getting friendly and specialist business financing advice. At Bell Finance you will find a comprehensive range of business finance solutions to choose from. Why not check them out today at bellfinance.co.uk.

Commercial Mortgage Modification

In todays crumbling, commercial real estate market, both borrowers and lenders find themselves in quite a precarious predicament. Borrowers struggle to make their commercial mortgage payments, while lenders are crippled by the increasing number of defaults on commercial property. Right now the best solution to this problem is commercial mortgage modification.

Commercial mortgage modification is the process of renegotiating the terms of a commercial loan. This is done typically by reducing the interest rate or monthly payment on the loan. Other benefits to the borrower may include an extension of the loan term, a forbearance or moratorium on payments, and of course an alternative to foreclosure.

A commercial mortgage modification is about risk to the lender. A lender will only consider a modification if a borrower is in default or at risk of defaulting. The most important thing the lender will look at in determining whether or not to modify a commercial note is cash flow. One very important calculation used in determining cash flow is called the DCR or Debt Coverage Ratio. This ratio is used by the underwriters to determine if a modification can be approved. If a property is breaking even, meaning the income generated is equal to the operating expenses, the DCR would be equal to 1. If commercial property has a positive cash flow, meaning the income the property generates is more than sufficient to cover the mortgage payment and all of the operating expenses, the DCR is greater than 1. If the property is losing money, the DCR would be less than 1. A lender will most likely not modify the commercial note, if the property already has a DCR greater than 1. Commercial lenders writing new commercial loans will most likely require a DCR of 1.25 or greater.

The most common form of payment reduction seen in a commercial mortgage modification is when the lender converts a principal and interest payment to an interest only payment. A lender may consider this form of commercial loan modification to help the borrower improve their cash flow. By only paying the interest on the loan, as opposed to principal and interest, the payment becomes more affordable for the borrower.

However, in extreme circumstances, reducing the mortgage payment to interest only is just not enough for a commercial property owner. If a lender sees that the borrower will still have negative cash flow even after reducing the payment to interest only, they may consider a reduction in the interest rate. Although the interest rate reduction may be temporary, it will help the borrower free up capital and maintain the mortgage payment on time. Although uncommon, lenders have lowered interest rates to as low as 1% even, to avoid an even more costly foreclosure.

Bank Jobs And Banking Scenario In India

The banking industry is surely blooming in India. In fact, in the last decade, there has been a tremendous growth in this sector with both public and private banks doing good business. The percentage of vacancy in banks has also grown up resulting in more and more employment opportunities for the current generation of youths.

Furthermore, it cannot be denied that banking jobs are one of the most preferred jobs in the economy today. Bank jobs are secure, high-paying and very rewarding. More and more people are showing a strong inclination to enter the banking industry. Besides, you also need to consider the fact that the modern day banks have really diversified themselves very well.

Gone are the days when they merely used to perform the conventional functions of accepting deposits and granting loans. Take for instance, the McKinsey Report titled India Banking 2010 which revealed that the growth in the banking sector in the country has been staggeringly high in the last 10 years with an annual growth rate of 51%. This certainly augurs well for the economy which has always been criticized for its high population and high unemployment rate.

Fortunately, more and more recent bank jobs are cropping up and the youths are only too eager to grab the opportunity with both hands.

The present day scenario is certainly promising chiefly owing to two reasons:
i.Diversification: As explained above, banks have shed their conventional tags and are now diversifying their functions to perform a number of activities. They are not shying away from managing credit cards, funds, loans, stocks and insurances for the clients. Thus, there are several new departments that have come up. It goes without saying that the birth of new departments opens up more employment opportunities for the countrymen.

ii.Foreign branches: Another reason why the banking scenario is at a booming state is that a number of banks are setting up branches on foreign soil. With globalization taking full shape, it has become almost imperative for the modern day banks to establish their presence all over the world. Hence, even Indian banks are setting up branches on other countries. Then there are private banks and foreign banks which are extending their powers inside the country. All these have surely given birth to fresh employment opportunities.

What is USDA Organic and Trade Certified Coffee Arizona

What is USDA Organic and Trade Certified Coffee

USDA Organic coffee does not feature chemical compounds that are fabricated. This is because several of those compounds that turn up in non-organic coffee feature particular types of herbicides and chemicals.

USDA Organic Coffee

Certifying coffee as natural requires the ranch the coffee was fed at is a completely natural ranch. Prior to coffee could officially be identified natural, a USDA agent must inspect the site where the coffee was created. There are national standards that the coffee needs to fulfill long before being thought about natural. The national standards state that the coffee needs to be grown on a ranch that asks planters not to make use of chemicals on their plants within the last 3 years. Exemptions are usually made to this requirement and there is no assurance that any kind of coffee identified USDA Organic is entirely without deposit from chemicals.

Types of natural plant food that are usually made use of to increase coffee grains feature general garden compost, chicken manure, bocachi, and coffee pulps. If it is determined coffee grains were grown utilizing phosphate or artificial nitrogen the USDA will certainly not consider them to be natural.

After coffee grains have actually been decided on, the Organic Meals Production Act keeps track of the manufacturing of the coffee and controls the chemicals that could be made use of to create it. These regulations are not constantly complied with. The Organic Standards Board of the Usa has actually declared that labeling coffee as natural does deficient any kind of healthier than coffee that is ruled out natural. Trade Certified Coffee

Trade Certified Coffee is coffee that supports the idea of families who run farms having better lives. This is achieved by billing customers reasonable rates for coffee. It also includes the advancement of farming neighborhoods and assisting stewardships of an ecological attributes. A reasonable trade planter is one who functions directly with the firms that give products to grocery shops, bistros and coffeehouse across the country. These are usually international purchasers that could assist planters get their coffee into shops all around the world.

As a result of the fact that planters increase grains to create trade approved coffee, they could much better support their families and spend for the university education and learnings of their youngsters. They also assist to make international professions more prominent and more successful for planters far and wide and also safeguard the atmosphere by keeping the world’s sources and substantially reducing ecological contamination.

Feel free to check our products

usda coffee usda coffee usda coffee